Q: Many moral philosophers believe that the dichotomy from the Intro course is drawn too sharply. とはどういう意味ですか?
A: A dichotomy is a division into two. I'm guessing the dichotomy being referred to here (though it's actually not clear from context) is between deontology and a competing metaethical theory, probably utilitarianism. In introductory ethics courses, these might be taught as two rival approaches that have little in common with each other. The sentence in question is trying to show that many moral philosophers think that these two systems are not so different after all. This point is expanded on and elaborated in the very next sentence, which shows that deontological principles contribute to an aim that utilitarians support, namely providing the greatest happiness to the most people.
Q: She wrote a radical critique of the philosopher's early essays.

In this sentence, what's the meaning of "radical"? とはどういう意味ですか?
A: Generally radical in academia means not belonging to the consensus, or historical tradition or agreeing with the leading academics
Q: The ancient Greek philosophers put leisure to use all one had learned to expand an individual's intellectual horizons. In this sentence what's the meaning of "put leisure to use all"? とはどういう意味ですか?
A: If I'm not mistaken

put leisure to use all refers to 'contributing a lot' to be able to do or get or give something like their vast knowledge that shapes an individual's perspective


Q: philosopher を使った例文を教えて下さい。
A: Ralph Waldo Emerson was a famous philosopher, he wrote many poems about nature.
I want to study philosophy in college so I can become a philosopher.
Philosophers create ideas to live by
Q: the first western philosophers lived in Greece. с этим предложением сделайте все виды вопросительных предложений を使った例文を教えて下さい。
A: It is said that western philosophy originated in ancient Greece.
It is thought that western philosophy developed in ancient Greece.
In the west, it is thought that philosophy had its origins in ancient Greece.
Philosophy in the west started in ancient Greece.


Q: he was a great philosopher は 英語 (アメリカ) で何と言いますか?
A: QAの全文をご確認ください
Q: philosopher は 英語 (イギリス) で何と言いますか?
A: QAの全文をご確認ください
Q: philosopher stone は 英語 (アメリカ) で何と言いますか?
A: QAの全文をご確認ください


Q: philosopherの発音を音声で教えてください。
A: There you go! :)
Q: "For all that French philosophers and…"

Is "that+plural" correct? Why is not used "those"?
A: There is a mistake here. What the mistake *is* depends on the context.

If "for all that" refers to what was just said, then there should be a comma:

For all that, French philosophers and…

Or if "that" refers to philosophers, it should be "those":

For all those French philosophers and…
Q: Which philosopher do you admire most from your country, and what did he/she do?
A: In Pakistan, we admire our poet-philosopher Allama Iqbal who played a big role towards the independence of Muslims from the Hindus. He dreamed of a separate homeland for Muslims (now called Pakistan) and inspired people to move forward by writing beautiful poetry on brotherhood and patriotism!
Q: Which philosopher do you most admire in your country? And what he/she did?
A: "Which philosopher(s) do you admire most from your country, and what did he/she do?" would sound more natural.

Adding an s to philosopher is the difference in single or plural, one philosopher, or multiple philosophers.

"in your country" is fine, and would include foreign philosophers that might happen to be currently residing in your country. More likely "from your country" is what you mean though.

You shouldn't start sentences with "And".

"What did he do", is the proper way to ask what he/she did to gain notoriety.
Q: A Japanese philosopher published his thoughts about space immigration in the future. He said that there are many questions on it even apart from physical difficulties.
For example, he expected that human being's population growth will stop like the current Western countries in the future so there are no worth to expand living area to the space. この表現は自然ですか?
A: Try to substitute "human beings'" instead to make it plural or more generalized. Also "worth" is singular so use "there is" instead. Good job :)